Preface to Physics in 5 dimensions
The title Physics in 5 dimensions was selected to convey the idea of adding a new property, a new dimension, to the four dimensions of space and time used in classical physics.
This book is intended to give an exact insight into the Theory of Physics in 5 dimensions to those readers whose interest in physics covers a broad range of topics and who, from a scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the bigger questions of physics and the universe still to be answered, but are not conversant with the specialist knowledge of theoretical physics. The mathematics used in the book is typical of a first year university physics degree course. The work presumes a standard of education corresponding to a university degree and a fair amount of patience and determination on the part of the reader.
The book will be more easily understood by readers familiar, at least in outline, with Einstein’s Special and General Theory of Relativity. For readers wishing to refresh their knowledge of these subjects, I have included in Appendix A Einstein’s very useful note and fifth appendix from his book “Relativity” (1952 edition).
When theoretical physicists read the title of Physics in 5 dimensions they tend to relate to the mathematical systems of theoretical physics that cope with many more dimensions than five. So it is important to be clear from the start that Physics in 5 dimensions does not relate to such mathematical systems of theoretical physics nor does the reader require the specialist knowledge of theoretical physics.
The research and writing of this book spanned several years, alongside earning a living from high technology industrial projects involving applied physics. The disadvantage arising from these parallel activities was the limit on time and resources for researching and writing Physics in 5 dimensions, while the major advantage was working on new perspectives of physics alongside “real time” applied physics for industrial projects. This ongoing interaction with professional scientists provided me with a rare and very special mix of theoretical and practical physics experience.
I have endeavoured to present the main ideas of Physics in 5 dimensions in the simplest and most understandable form, and mainly in the sequence in which the work was carried out. In the interest of clarity, some of the material is repeated, using different perspectives, and follows my own pattern of thought when exploring each topic. Mathematical expressions support the text and often figures illustrate the relationships between parameters.
The current view of classical physics is summarised for each field and, while some topics had changed little from the time of my own university physics education from 1965 to 1969, a search for more recent material identified additional and current developments. The material selected was carefully edited to provide a concise summary of the classical view of each field and the sources used identified.
Without the distraction of having to use other reference books, these summaries provide the reader with the current view of classical physics, so that the new perspective of Physics in 5 dimensions, the hypotheses developed and their results, which are shown to comply with the fundamentals of physics, can be seen to follow as reasonable and logical extensions of the classical view. The perspective of Physics in 5 dimensions develops over many different fields of physics throughout the book and is to be judged on the complete work with opinions motivated by the extent of the results.
May this book give the reader an opportunity to refresh their view of classical physics and many hours of interesting thought with the perspective of Physics in 5 dimensions.
Alan Clark, March 2011
Preface to the 2017 edition winterwork
A number of errors and misprints which were present in the earlier edition of this work have been corrected and references to some recent publications have been added. The resolution of many of the coloured figures has been improved to match the amended printing requirements of the publisher.
Alan Clark, March 2017
Up to 1990, in the 20+ years after my own university education, I witnessed a significant decrease in reporting by the scientific press on the bigger issues of physics such as a “Unified theory of physics”, a “Theory of gravity” and a “Coherent explanation of the origin of matter and the universe”. Instead the development of physics was centred on highly specialised groups working in narrow fields, where advances in one field are increasingly incomprehensible to those working in a neighbouring field; a trend which is still the case today. From my perspective, the concentration on the Big Bang Theory and the ongoing and increasing expenditure on ever larger colliders, has failed the test of time while continuously absorbing research funds without delivering the “break through results”. Reports continue to appear identifying gaps in the Big Bang Theory and pointing out the need to either “fix” the theory or replace it.
During the many years I worked in various high technology industrial fields, specifying and designing optical systems for OEMs, I looked forward to the advance of physics to provide a better understanding of several phenomena regularly confronting me during my applied physics and optics education, my practical OEM work experience and when reading scientific reports and articles. Some examples of the issues I considered were:
- Why does the speed of light have the measured velocity of 2.9979 x 10˄8 m/sec and not some other value?
- Why does a corpuscular approach work well in some physics calculations and, for the same object, only a wave structure in other cases?
- Is the motion of an electron around an atom really caused by different physics than the motion of larger bodies such as the earth around the sun (electrostatic / gravity)?
With all the research and effort applied to physics in my lifetime, the advances made in specific fields are technically brilliant, as demonstrated by the many advanced products resulting from this research, yet have done little to address the bigger issues of physics and the universe. Correspondingly, within my life span, I had the feeling that starting from where-we-are-now is unlikely to provide either the answers to my own few questions or produce significant advances in physics in terms of an understandable unified theory.
The opposite of the development of physics centred on highly specialised groups working in narrow fields, is a broad based review of many fields of classical physics by revisiting the original work of the physicists responsible for the classical view, and looking for a common theme connecting these fields, a thread of an idea, which develops a more unified perspective of the available information and yet still fits the fundamentals of physics. I considered that a thorough research of the works of the many famous physicists that filled my physics text books could be rewarding. I expected to find the common thread of an idea among the work of these physicists. A prime requirement of any new perspective was the retention of objectivity, or at least a semblance of objectivity, which is not the case in many fields of classical physics today.
The method used involved establishing the current classical view of each topic, and then to consider other ways of viewing the results in the search for alternative perspectives and other hypotheses that still match the associated fundamentals of physics. The research was motivated by the results of each new stage and an ever improving “common” and “unifying” perspective of physics. “Physics in 5 dimensions” is a record of my work and the resulting thread of an idea and the associated hypotheses.
Each topic covered includes a description of the classical view of physics and historical background where appropriate, and then introduces the applicable aspects of 5-dimensional space. The resulting change of perspective between 4- and 5-dimensional spaces is exactly described.
Developing alternative perspectives of classical physics demanded clear discrimination between the true fundamentals of physics, on the one hand, and any of my own assumptions and those of popular paradigms, that may not be true, on the other hand. Nearly all the wrong paths taken during my research were caused by making assumptions that seemed obvious but were in fact not true. The importance of this discriminating approach became a key feature of the research where checking that the mathematics consistently worked over the many fields of physics covered became the major test.
The Theory of Physics in 5 dimensions developed in this book complies with the fundamentals of physics yet introduces a new perspective in the form of hypotheses common to many fields of physics. Universal equations of motion of 5-dimensional local space are derived and work for all moving particles and bodies. The theory works in quantum physics for the motion of photons, electrons, nucleons & atoms and in classical mechanics for the motion of large bodies (e.g. Sun, planets etc.).
Throughout the book, the objectivity permits figures to be drawn linking the parameters of the applicable physics with the key equations reviewed. The Theory of Physics in 5 dimensions and the view of 5-dimensional space are developed in tandem and while the first figures of 5-dimensional space are limited to uniformly moving frames of reference without rotation, corresponding to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, by the end of the book the figures of 5-dimensional space include rotating frames of reference with a pronounced relationship to all the physical and geometric parameters of Minkowski’s 4- dimensional space-time continuum as well as to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
A review of the structure of the universe highlights the range of issues addressed by Physics in 5 dimensions where the results make a case for replacing the Big Bang Theory with the Theory of Physics in 5 dimensions as the model, or theory, of the development of the universe.
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